Distinctly Different Doctrine: Why Multi
Those who have watched the Armys concept for Multi-Domain Operations evolve since the fall of 2017 have experienced an odd sense of déjà vu. Thirty-seven years ago, the Army promulgated what it described as a multidimensional warfighting doctrine called AirLand Battle that would reset battle strategy. It was a shift from a focus on low-intensity, small-unit, decentralized counterinsurgency operations to larger-scale operations, heavily dependent on sophisticated technology for decisive operations fighting outnumbered in the U.S. European Command Theater.
Although Multi-Domain Operations shares common traits with AirLand Battle, there are important differences that deserve attention before dismissing Multi-Domain Operations as a blast from the past.
AirLand Battle doctrine was shaped into a NATO deep battle warfighting concept to combat a potential Soviet attack. This proved effective in 1991 when joint operations, deep battle effects, and well-trained air and ground integrated combined-arms maneuver forces enabled U.S. and coalition forces to quickly defeat the Iraqi Army in and around Kuwait while suffering minimal losses.
New Concept Needed
Function of New Technology
Branches And Functional Areas
Personnel in the Army work in various branches, which is their area of training or expertise. Traditionally, the branches were divided into three groups combat arms, combat support, and combat service support. Currently, the Army classifies its branches as maneuver, fires, and effects operations support and force sustainment.
Basic branches – contain groupings of military occupational specialties in various functional categories, groups, and areas of the army in which officers are commissioned or appointed and indicate an officer’s broad specialty area. Generally, officers are assigned to sequential positions of increasing responsibility and authority within one of the three functional categories of the army branches to develop their leadership and managerial skills to prepare them for higher levels of command. The branches themselves are administrative vice operational command structures that are primarily involved with training, doctrine, and manpower concerns. Each branch has a Branch Chief who is the Head of the Branch and usually serves as the respective branch school commandant or director.
Each branch of the army has a different branch insignia. Per US Army Pamphlet 600-3, dated 1 February 2010, the three functional categories and associated functional groups for the branches and associated functional areas are:
Options For Small Nato Countries To Prepare For Multi
Options for Small NATO Countries to Prepare for Multi-Domain Operations
Chief Specialist in the Warfare Institute at the Training and Doctrine Command of the Lithuanian Armed Forces
Recently, the new term Multi-domain operations has popped up, which describes how battles will be conducted in the future as militaries would operate in a more concentrated manner , meaning, they would act in five military domains: air, ground, sea, space, and cyberspace. Military operations will be carried out in five domains under their simultaneous management or coordination from a single center. This new perception, arguably a change in warfare, is influenced by the level of current technological development, the need to improve the survivability of own troops on the battlefield, and the perception that effective military activity requires actions carried out not only through classical military environments but also in space and cyberspace. This, of course, changes the established understanding of the conduct of military operations, and now is the right time to start thinking about how small NATO countries will adapt to this change.
Figure 1. The conceptual difference in the execution of operations
Changes in the U.S. Armed Forces
Figure 2. Generic structure of the MDO task force
Ambitions and initiatives of other NATO countries
Figure 3. The proposed structure of the 1st German / Netherland Corps
Preparation for MDO in small NATO countries
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Headquarters Department Of The Army Staff
The U.S. Army is led by a civilian Secretary of the Army, who reports to the secretary of defense, and serves as civilian oversight for the Chief of Staff of the United States Army . The CSA is assisted by the Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army The CSA is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a body composed of the service chiefs from each service who advise the President of the United States and secretary of defense on military matters under the guidance of the chairman and vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The Army Training And Doctrine Command Definition Of Multi
MDO describes how the U.S. Army, as part of the joint force, can counter and defeat an adversary capable of contesting the United States in all domains in both competition and armed conflict. The concept describes how U.S. ground forces deter adversaries and defeat highly capable near-peer enemies in the 20252050 time frame. MDO provides commanders with numerous options for executing simultaneous and sequential operations using surprise and the rapid and continuous integration of capabilities across all domains to present multiple dilemmas to an adversary in order to gain physical and psychological advantages and influence and control over the operational environment.1
Suggested Citation:Powering the U.S. Army of the Future
Although the study was intended to be based on an Army MDO scenario, tangible scenarios were not available at the time of the study effort. In lieu of such scenarios, the study committee held a data-gathering session dedicated to understanding the Armys current thinking on MDO and the 2035 operating environment. The output of that meeting, combined with additional inputs, most notably from RANDs Arroyo Center, guided the committees assessment of power and energy systems. The committee chose to focus on maneuver operations of an Armored Brigade Combat Team , because it is a predominant combat formation and represents one of the most challenging scenarios from a P& E standpoint.2
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A Sailors Take On Multi
Warfighting concepts come and go. Reflecting the predominant concerns of their times, some will produce lasting reforms with historical impact, whereas others will be unceremoniously discarded as their champions retire. Still others will quietly fade into obscurity as their useful contributions are absorbed into practice, their bad ideas are forgotten, and a yet-newer concept captures the imagination. Multi-domain operations, a concept which has taken various forms since about 2016, could go any of the three directions.
Multi-domain is an evolving term utilized primarily by futurists associated with the U.S. Army and the U.S. Air Force. Expressed in noun form, multi-domain operations represent those futurists aspirations to improve integration of military forces across the operational domains land, maritime, air, space, and cyber through a combination of organizational reform and emerging technology. Excited commentators have called multi-domain operations everything from a conceptual successor to joint warfare to a 21st century analogue for the Apollo program. Likewise, skeptics have labeled the concept as a slogan laden with unrealistic ambition and self-congratulatory prose.
Multi-Domain Operations Today
Multi-Domain Operations are the Problem
Problems of Integration
Image: U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Ford Williams
Structure Of The United States Army
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The structure of the United States Army is complex, and can be interpreted in several different ways: active/reserve, operational/administrative, and branches/functional areas.
From time to time the Department of the Army issues Department of the Army General Orders. In addition to base closures, unit citations, certain awards such as the Medal of Honor and Legion of Merit, they may concern the creation of JROTC units and structural changes to the Army. These are listed by year on the Army Publishing Directorate’s website.
This page aims to portray the current overall structure of the US Army.
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A Look At Differing Views On A Developing Concept
The use of the term Multi-Domain Operations has increased in popularity over the past decade as military services, those of the United States, in particular, have sought to codify their approach to warfare beyond the traditional confines of land, sea, and air. The term is new enough that, while many in military circles within the US and NATO have heard and even used the term themselves, the term is yet undefined by most nations and by NATO. Moreover, much of what has been written in the past few years concerning MDO bypasses elaborating on or clearly defining MDO, instead focusing on Multi-Domain Command and Control . This paper will break from that approach and focus on addressing what can currently be said about MDO, from officially published guidance, and how it differs from previous concepts notably Joint Operations.
A pessimistic and dismissive view of MDO, as a term, could be as a mere buzzword, synonymous with joint operations. And without clear definitions, it will be difficult to dispel naysayers. In the interim, time and resources are being expended on examining MDO and how NATO, and its member nations, can utilise the concepts contained therein. The discussions and research from these investigations are driving changes in capability development and will have repercussions within the Alliance for years to come. In the short-term, it is imperative that the 29 members of NATO arrive at a clear definition so they can move forward together.
See footnote # 6, page 3.
Office Of The Inspector General
The Inspector General of the Army maintains open channels of communication for extraordinary issues which might lie outside the purview of the chain of command it lists points of contact for the 3 Army Commands , the 11 Army Service Component Commands , and 12 Direct Reporting Units . IG teams might then be assigned to a case, if need be, to perform inspections, assessments, and investigations.
- Inspector General’s Corps
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Anticipated Operating Environment Of 2035
To bring the joint force together in a focused, coordinated, and strategic way, enhanced battlefield awareness is critically important. Supporting this technology, there will be improved bandwidth communications, leveraging commercially available technologies , but with unique modifications for military use. These adaptations include
2 While the U.S. Marine Corps has similar needs to the Army, the committee scoped the study to focus on the Army specifically. Furthermore, USMC requirements for mobility and transportation are different and the USMC has recently begun retiring their Abrams tanks, which are a major focus of this study. For these reasons the committee has chosen to focus on the Army.
3 Volumetric energy density is considered to be a more important metric than gravimetric energy density because JP8 supply trucks cube out before they weigh out.
4 Note: The Operational Logistics Planner is the main tool provided by Combined Arms Support Command to assess mission equipment and energy needs.
Suggested Citation:Powering the U.S. Army of the Future
system-wide enhancements to accommodate terrain differences and the lack of fixed nodes.
At the same time, new weapon systems now being developed, such as directed energy and cyberwarfare weapons, may add to the ever-increasing electrical power requirements of the future battlefield.
Multidomain Operations Concept Will Become Doctrine This Summer
FORT LEAVENWORTH, Kansas The U.S. Army has spent roughly five years refining its multidomain operations warfighting concept and it will become doctrine in June, according to Richard Creed, director of the services Combined Arms Center doctrine division.
The doctrine will address great power competition and potential conflict with near-peer adversaries across air, land, sea, space and cyberspace.
The service has released several versions of its MDO concept, refining it through evaluation, exercise, wargaming and its first Multidomain Task Force. The task force was established to test the MDO concept, but will now be used as operational units around the globe. There will be five tailored to operate in specific theaters, from Indo-Pacific Command to European Command.
The second MDTF was established in Europe last fall. The first is based out of Joint Base Lewis McChord in Washington State and is focused on INDOPACOM.
In the final doctrine set for release in a few months, the Army defines multidomain operations as the combined arms employment of capabilities from all domains that create and exploit relative advantages to defeat enemy forces, achieve objectives and consolidate gains during competition, crisis, and armed conflict, according to a document obtained by Defense News at Fort Leavenworth.
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Exploring The Foundation Of Multi
Exploring the Foundation of Multi-Domain Operations
Brandon C. Kasubaski
Attaining one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the pinnacle of excellence. Subjugating of the enemys army without fighting is the pinnacle of excellence.
Sun Tzu, The Art of War
The U.S is facing multifaceted challenges, including our adversaries, which it cannot favorably engage in competition and conflict. This requires creative solutions and responses from the entire Department of Defense. Last December, U.S Army Training and Doctrine Command released their capstone product TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1, The U.S Army in Multi Domain Operations 2028. TP 525-3-1 describes how the Army contributes to deterring and defeating our adversaries in both competition and conflict. Within TP 525-3-1 the Multi-Domain Operations concept drives the detailed solutions to problems posed by our adversaries.
Figure 1: The Strategy Process
The military must continuously apply validity tests of its strategies to ensure desired national ends can be met by available military means . Four forms of strategy affect the military: grand strategy, security strategy, military strategy, operational strategy, and battlefield strategy .
The Elements of MDO
Linear operations. Linear operations are a relatively continuous line of contact separating well defined areas under either friendly or enemy control.12
Figure 2: Linear and Non-Linear Operation Activities
Vice President Multi Domain Operations Division
Present3 years 6 months
Queens County, New York, United States
I was called to active duty service as an intelligence professional supporting Information Operations in July 2018. My focus during this period has been the development and validation of new intelligence methodologies to address emerging global challenges. As project lead for two distinct, yet mutually supportive initiatives, Ive had the pleasure of collaborating with stakeholders throughout the Army while working with next generation capabilities. Over the course of two years Ive had
I was called to active duty service as an intelligence professional supporting Information Operations in July 2018. My focus during this period has been the development and validation of new intelligence methodologies to address emerging global challenges. As project lead for two distinct, yet mutually supportive initiatives, Ive had the pleasure of collaborating with stakeholders throughout the Army while working with next generation capabilities. Over the course of two years Ive had the opportunity to advance cutting edge concepts from R& D to real world testing and validation. Its been an incredible experience, with a wealth of lessons learned.
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Stacie Pettyjohn explains the concept of multi-domain operations as part of a panel on Technology as a Battlefield Game Changer at the 2018 Roberta Wohlstetter Forum on National Security.
The Chinese and the Russians have both have developed different but sophisticated anti-access/area denial systems that can strike U.S. forces at range and potentially prevent them from building up combat power in the region, closing in on them, and defeating them in a close fight. Pettyjohn discusses the idea of multi-domain operations as a way to penetrate these A2/AD networks and to deter or defeat aggression.
Readying For Multidomain Operations
The doctrine acknowledges the operational environment includes not just air, land and sea but also space and cyberspace and that Army forces operate through the physical dimension, influence through the information dimension and achieve victory in the human dimension, the document notes.
Army formations will be designed to exploit relative advantage in those three dimensions, it adds.
The doctrine concludes that winning against a peer threat like Russia or China requires Army forces to fracture the coherence of threat operational approaches by breaking up their interdependent systems and formations and then rapidly exploiting opportunities to defeat enemy forces in detail, according to the document.
Multidomain operations is conducted during three phases of operation: competition, crisis and armed conflict. It addresses the challenge of peer competitors using layered capabilities at stand-off range to deter, requiring the U.S. and its partners and allies to use redundant land-based capabilities to take out or degrade threat networked intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance and long-range fires capabilities, the document details.
China and Russia are positioned to win without fighting when it can control the narrative and facts on the ground, so the Army must establish a truthful narrative to contest that approach during both competition and crisis phases of operation, the document says.
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New Mdtf Installation Could Add Thousands Of Soldiers Dozens Of Jobs
According to Zembiec, two MDTF locations will be chosen by the Army, and the area around Fort Drum is being focused on. The result would bring 3,000 Soldiers to the area and create dozens of civilian jobs, all boosting the local economy. Fort Drum is one of 13 places making a case to be chosen by the U.S. Army, as the military branch has already selected three other locations so far.
Army Multi-Domain Operations are heating up in importance as the outlook of possible conflicts with both China and Russia intensifies. National security concerns are growing, as are international concerns involving conflicts in Europe with the invasion of Ukraine as well as Chinas aggression towards Taiwan.